Facial expression of
started by Duchenne de Boulogne who published The
Mechanism of Human Facial
Expression in 1862.
Duchenne's pioneering work
with an old man afflicted with almost
total facial anesthesia influenced Darwin who published The
Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals ten
years later in 1872.
|Read Ekman, P. (1999) Facial
Expressions. In T. Dalgleish and T. Power (Eds.) The Handbook of
Cognition and Emotion. Pp. 301-320. Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley &
Sons, Ltd. Available online
is a human 'universal'?
evaluate the research technique Darwin used to investigate the
universality of facial
- What are the
technical problems associated with using photographs to study
facial expression of emotion?
- Would you use a
'free' or forced-choice' paradigm in a study of facial expression
- To what extent do
Ekman's studies in Papua New Guinea rule out the possibility that cross
cultural similarities in facial judgement studies are due to common
learning experiences across cultures?
- Are the findings of
universal facial judgements an artifact caused by using posed facial
- Give an example of
how 'display rules' influence facial expression.
- Why is it necessary
to show some similarity between human facial expressions and those in
closely related species?
- What is meant by the
term 'species-constant learning'?
- To what extent is
facial expression of emotion a human universal?
|Read Ekman, P. (1999) Basic
emotions. In T.
Dalgleish and T. Power (Eds.) The Handbook of Cognition and Emotion.
Pp. 45-60. Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Available online and consider the
- Why have Ekman's
views on basic emotions changed during his research career? What does
this tell you about the scientific process?
- Can social
constructionism account for human universals?
- Is Ekman's view that
"our appraisal of a current event is influenced by our ancestral past."
consistent with social constructionism?
- What does Ekman mean
by the term 'universal signal'?
- To what extent is a
mood different from an emotion?
- Can an emotion exist
without a 'universal signal', and vice versa?
- To what extent are
there physiological differences between emotions, and if there are, can
the differences be explained in terms of social constructionism?
- Are there
similarities between Ekman's 'appraisal mechanisms', LeDoux's
'emotional processing systems' and ethologists innate
- Does 'biologically
prepared learning' contribute to the development of input events that
'universally' trigger emotions?
- From an evolutionary
point of view would you expect several emotions to be unique to humans?
- Would you classify
Ekman as a 'social constructionist' or an 'evolutionary psychologist'?
(2002) Basic Emotions, Complex Emotions, Machiavellian Emotions.Available online and consider the
did Darwin study human emotions?
experimental innovation did Ekman introduce to avoid a source of
possible error in Darwin's studies?
'basic emotions' are found across cultures?
three characteristics of basic emotions identified by Ekman
emotion occur in the absence of cognition?
in the brain are 'cognitive' and 'affective' computations carried out
according to LeDoux's 'twin-pathway' analysis of fear?
is Buss' explanation of sexual jealousy?
and contrast Ekman views on basic emotions with those of the
evolutionary psychologists Gaulin and McBurney.
between primary and secondary emotions
distinguishes 'somatic appraisal' from 'transactional' theories of
with examples, the terms 'audience effects' and 'cultural display
The brain and emotion
(1999). Précis of "The Brain and
Emotion", available online, and consider the
- What is the overarching
hypothesis developed by Rolls?
- Why is it important to
study the brain systems involved in motivation and emotion in primates
as well as rodents? What are the practical implications of your answer?
- How does Rolls define an
- What is a reward?
- What is a punishment?
- Give examples of how
emotions can be manipulated through reward and punishment.
- What is the relationship
between reinforcer, reward and punishment?
- Explain, with examples, the
terms 'primary' and 'secondary' reinforcer.
- Can Rolls' model of emotion
explain why, following the loss of a loved one, it is common to
experience both anger and grief?
- What part does cognition
play in emotion?
- Where do primary
reinforcers come from?
- What is the role of
dopamine in the initiation of behaviour and reinforcement?
- Do we feel emotion because
we engage in emotional behaviour/
- Would you classify Rolls as
an evolutionary psychologist, or an evolutionary psychobiologist?
What is the
role of dopamine in reward?
According to most textbooks when the dopamine
pathway running from the ventral tegmental area to the
nucleus accumbens in the
forebrain is activated, the release of dopamine into the
forebrain nucleus accumbens
is believed to cause feelings of pleasure. However this conventional
view has been
challenged by Dr. Mark Wightman and his colleagues (Garris et al, 1999)
at the University
of North Carolina (see Center Line (2000)). They confirmed previous findings
- Artificially stimulating
the ventral tegmental area at a regular or irregular rate released
dopamine in the forebrain.
- Rats can be trained to
electrically stimulate the ventral tegmental area.
- Rats were unable to learn
to self-stimulate if the stimulation produced no dopamine release
- As predicted this
self-stimulation is accompanied by the release of dopamine in the
However this effect does not
- With continued
training virtually no dopamine was released in response to
self-stimulation of the ventral tegmental area, even though ventral
tegmental stimulation remained rewarding—the animal continued
performance of the bar pressing response.
Therefore the release of
dopamine may not be critical for
reinforcement once the task is learned. Wightman has suggested
that dopamine may
be a neural substrate for novelty or reward expectation
rather than reward itself.
'Human emotion is cortical, animal emotion is
You may have
formed the impression that the cortex is the
'seat' of human emotions, wheresas subcortical areas control emotions
in other animals.
However this apparent difference may be the result of how emotion has
been studied in
humans and animals, rather than reflecting a fundamental dichotomy in
how the brain
(in press 2001) argues that studies on
emotions in humans and other animals vary in a number of dimensions:
||Human (and pimates)
||Animal (mostly rodents)
accumbens & mesolimbic dopamine pathways
emotional cognition - cognitive tasks involving words or pictures.
Ethical considerations restrict use of more powerful stimuli.
emotions elicited by innate or conditioned stimuli - fear, hunger,
noninvasive brain imaging techniques:
|involve direct manipulation of the brain
(in press 2001) Comparing the
emotional brain of humans and other animals. In
Handbook of Affective
Sciences, R. Davidson, K. Scherer, H. Hill Goldsmith (Eds.), Chapter 3:
pp. 25-51., Oxford
University Press, N.Y., 2003. Available online.
- Why is the
orbitofrontal cortex so called?
outline the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in reward
- Does loss
of prefrontal cortex lead to the absence of emotion?
- Is the
cingulate cortex the seat of pain?
- What is he
role of the amygdala in fear, learning to fear, and learning
what to fear?
dopamine activity in the nucleus accumbens = 'reward'?
dopamine activity in the nucleus accumbens make us 'want' a reward, or
'like' the reward?
- Does the
lateral hypothalamus contain elements of discrete 'circuits' mediating
hunger, sex, fear, maternal behaviour etc.?
electrical stimulation of the septum activate sexual pleasure circuits
- Are the
brain structures controlling emotion different in humans and other
appears in Berridge (in press 2001).
(1999) From moods to
modules: preliminary remarks for an evolutionary theory of mood
phenomena. In Proceedings
Naturalism, Evolution and Mind, Edinburgh. Available
paper gives a very clear summary of the evidence that emotions have a
modular basis. Do you think that mood(s) also consists of several
wealth and happiness
Imelda Marcos was
the wife of Philippine dictator Ferdinand Marcos. She amassed
a huge collection of
shoes which are now apparently in a museum!
In October of 2001 she
arrested and charged with corruption and
amassing wealth illegally during her husband's regime.
comes as no surprise that people who are
struggling with poverty are not particularily happy. Nevertheless,
despite a steady increase in personal income in America since 1956, the
people who report feeling "very happy" remains steady at about 30%.
Source Myers (2000)
explanataions have been given for why happiness is not generally linked
to financial success:
- the hedonic
treadmill effect - we get used to an improved standard of
- asymmetry of
affective experiences - we react more to bad things than good
(in press 2001) Comparing the emotional brain of humans and other
animals. In Handbook of Affective
Sciences, R. Davidson, K. Scherer, H. Hill Goldsmith (Eds.), Chapter 3:
pp. 25-51., Oxford University Press, N.Y., 2003. Available online
Line (2000). New insights on the neural basis of brain
reward and alcohol drinking. In Center Line Volume
11, Number 2, 2000 published by UNC Bowles Center for Alcohol
Studies School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill. Available online
(1872)The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
. Available online
P. (1999) Facial Expressions. In T. Dalgleish and T. Power (Eds.) The
Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Pp. 301-320. Sussex, U.K.: John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Available online
P. (1999) Basic emotions. In T. Dalgleish and T. Power (Eds.) The
Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Pp. 45-60. Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd. Available online
(1999) From moods to modules: preliminary remarks for an evolutionary
theory of mood phenomena. In Proceedings Naturalism, Evolution and
Mind, Edinburgh. Available online
(2002) Basic Emotions, Complex Emotions, Machiavellian Emotions.Available online
(2000) The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American
(1999). Précis of "The Brain and Emotion". Available online
(2003). Evolutionary Psychology: The Science of Human Behavior and
(2001). Cognitive biases and emotional wisdom in the evolution of
conflict between the sexes. Current Directions in Psychological
Sciences, 10/6, 219-223.
& Tooby (2000) Evolutionary Psychology and the
Emotion. To appear in: Handbook of Emotions, 2nd Edition M. Lewis
& J. M. Haviland-Jones, Editors. NY: Guilford. Preprint available online.
P. (1997). Should we call it expression or communication? Innovations
in Social Science Research, 10, 333-344. Available online
P. (1993) Facial expression of emotion. American Psychologist, 48,
384-392. Available online
- Garris, P.A.,
Kilpatrick, M., Bunin, M.A., Michael, D., Walker, Q.D., and Wightman,
R.M. Nature 398, pp. 67-69, 1999.
(In Press) Emotion, Evolution of.To appear in International
Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Pergamon/Elsevier
Science. Available online
(2001) Emotion and Expression. To appear in International Encyclopedia
of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Pergamon/Elsevier. Available online
(In Press) Emotion, Philosophical Issues. Encyclopedia of Cognitive
Science. London,MacMillan. Available
- Murphy and
Stich (nd). Griffiths, Elimination and Psychopathology.
To appear in Metascience. Available online.
Journal Articles and Book Chapters on happiness
C.A.P. Kenyon 1994-2006